full stack web developer

The global demand for web programmers is at an all time and if you are considering a career change to web development, knowing to where start can be extremely daunting. A full stack web developer eliminates the need to hire role specific professionals as the full stack developer can handle the entire application themselves. In this detailed beginner friendly guide, we provide an in-depth analysis into the path and roadmap you need to take to become a full stack web developer in 2022.

WHAT IS FULL STACK DEVELOPMENT ?

Full stack development is the technical ability to manage both front end and back end web development. A full stack developer is a professional who has mastered the ability to manage both front end and back end of a web development cycle.

WHAT IS FRONT END DEVELOPMENT ?

Front end development refers to all the client side related processes. That is, the part of a website a user sees and interacts with. It mostly refers to the user interfaces, graphics and designs that a website user interacts and has has access to. Front-end developers code the whole website using different web languages like html, CSS, and javascript. Front end website design is essential because it is the part of the website where users visit. 

FRONT END DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP

The main technologies required to master front end development in 2022 are HTML, CSS and Javascript. They are other important skills should learn if you want to become a highly sought after full stack developer. Below is our beginner friendly front end development roadmap in 2022.

  • INTERNET BASICS : You need a basic understanding of how browsers, domain names, hosting services, http, https and DNS works. They are tons of free resources to assist you understand these concepts. We have found Learncode’s YouTube video on how the internet works to be a very beginner friendly resource to use.
  • BASIC TOOLS : In web development, the main tools are the browser, code editor and terminal. Browsers include chrome, safari, mozilla firefox, microsoft edge, Brave and a host of others. They are necessary for LIVE Testing of your front end development projects. Text Editor is a web developer’s best friend. They are software programs used in writing code. VSCode is the most popular text editor being used by developers. CodeStackr Youtube’s video is a great beginners’s resource tool. The terminal or command line gives you direct access to your computer without the need for a GUI ( Graphical User Interface ). Freecodecamp’s Command Line Crash Course is a great place to start.
  • HTML, CSS & JAVASCRIPT : After you have set up and mastered your local environment, you are now ready to start coding. The first things to learn are HTML, CSS, and Javascript. HTML provides structure to a website, CSS makes it look good and Javascript makes things happen on site. Every webpage makes use of HTML, but it is worthy to note that HTML is not a programming language, but rather a markup language. CSS is another important part of website, it makes websites look good by styling the html elements and adds flare by providing transitions and animations. After mastering the basics and syntax of CSS, you will need to master CSS frameworks. Javascript is the first real programming language you are going to learn as a developer, HTML is a markup language, CSS is a styling language, while Javascript is an actual programming language, it adds dynamic functionality to a website. It is best advised you master the basic syntax of Javascript and Vanilla Javascript before you move over to learning Javascript frameworks. They are tons of quality materials to learn HTML, CSS and Javascript but we have a curated a list of quality courses that’ll take you from beginner to mastery level. Angela Yu’s 2022 web development Udemy course is a great place to start. Simplilearn’s Youtube Course is also highly beginner friendly and recommended. Edureka’s web development course is also a helpful resource. University standard course on HTML, CSS and Javascript by John Hopkins university is free and available for Coursera users.
  • VERSION CONTROL : Version control is very important to learn, Version Control allows you to keep track of changes to your codebase. This is an important skillset that enhances the performance of team based web development projects as changes to the project codebase are efficiently tracked and properly managed. Check out Udacity’s YouTube explainer on Version Control . Git and github are the most used version control systems for web development in 2022. Freecodecamp’s Youtube video is a great resource for beginners.

HOSTING AND DEPLOYMENT

After mastering front end web development technologies and processes, you need to learn how to transfer your code to live server and deploy a website. Hosting and deployment involves the process of transferring your new code to your web hosting environment. Hosting and deployment makes your website accessible to the public. Codestackr and Udacity Youtube’s video is a good place to gain proper understanding of hosting and deployment.

FRONT END DEVELOPER SKILL ASSESSMENT

At this point of your developer journey, you should be able to build and deploy a static website using HTML, CSS and Javascript. One way to learn faster is by actually doing something like building real world projects. You can also access your newly found skill by contributing to open source projects. But before you to move to learning back end web development, it is advised you master and understand the basics and syntax of front end development. They are also free assessment websites that can give you honest valuation of your front end development skillset. Skillvalue is a good place to start.

WHAT IS BACKEND DEVELOPMENT

Backend web development involves the processes required to handle the server side of the website. It is the heart and engine of a website and requires proficiency in server side programming language. Backend developers build, deploy and maintain the server side technology required to operate a fully functional dynamic website. They are numerous programming languages to learn and master backend web development in 2022 and your choice largely depends on personal factors and market demand. Python largely seems to be the number one backend programming language of choice in 2022, closely followed by Node.js. For web specific projects, PHP is also a great programming language to learn. For the purpose of this roadmap we will focus on backend development with Node.js.

BACKEND DEVELOPER ROADMAP

This is a beginner friendly roadmap for backend web development in 2022 using Node.js. Nodejs is one of the hottest skill in the tech environment right now and a perfect skill for a beginner to open up amazing career opportunities in web development. Node.js allows web developers use Javascript on the backend server. This beginner friendly roadmap will guide You on the steps to learn and master Nodejs for backend web development in 2022. It is advised you have mastered the basic syntax of Javascript before you proceed to learning Node.js

  • Introduction To Nodejs : You should learn what Nodejs is and its basic programming syntax. NodeJS is a server-side JavaScript runtime environment built on Google’s Chrome V8 JavaScript engine.
  • Installation of Nodejs : Installing NodeJS is a very straightforward process. You can download the stable version of NodeJs from the NodeJS official site. Depending on your operating system and system configurations, install NodeJS and then you can immediately start working on it. Make sure that your RAM is at least 4GB to support NodeJS.
  • Frameworks : NodeJS also provides a number of frameworks that help in building the application with better features.

Freecodecamp’s Youtube video on Node.js is a great place to start, You can also check out Simplilearn’s free Nodejs course on Youtube.

API

API stands for App Programming Interface, APIs allow you perform queries and computations on the backend and send the results on the frontend, Like requesting data from a database while the API performs the action and sends the result to the frontend. APIs add a layer of security to your web application. REST API is one of the most widely used among developers. Freecodecamp’s beginners course on API is a good place to start while you should check out Programming With Mosh Youtube’s course on REST API.

DATABASES

Every dynamic website has need of a database. There are many different types of databases such as relational, graph, wide column, document and a host of others. Your database of choice largely depends on the use case and the nature of the project. Relational databases are one of the most used types of databases for web developers. SQL is the most popular open source relational database used by web developers and they are tons of free materials on the web to learn and master SQL. Cornell university free course on database systems is good place to start for absolute beginners while Simplilearn’s free SQL course on Youtube is also well structured course material. Mosh’s Youtube course on MYSQL is also a great learning resource material.

FRAMEWORKS

At this point of your journey, it is time to master web frameworks for better and more efficient development processes. You should have mastered Javascript and CSS. Web frameworks are used to build dynamic web applications rather than writing the code from scratch in a specific programming language. Choosing the best web development framework is not easy, especially when there’s are a ton of them. From our previous learning we know that they are two categories of web frameworks; front-end and back-end frameworks. Though some of them allow development for both ends, these are known as full-stack frameworks. According to Stackoverflow; React, jQuery and express are the three most widely used web frameworks. For the purpose of this learning roadmap, we will stick to React, as you get more comfortable in your newly found web development skills, you can expand your knowledge by mastering other frameworks. Academind’s beginner course on React is a great place to start with Freecodecamp’s full React tutorial further deepens your knowledge. Bootstrap is undoubtedly the most used css framework in web development. Fullcourse’s beginner friendly bootstrap tutorial is a great place to start and you can check out Freecodecamp’s latest bootstrap course on Youtube.

At this point of your journey, you should have learnt enough to call yourself a full stack developer and begin your first web development project. One thing must be said, Learning never ends. You should stay updated with upcoming technologies in your field and deepen your knowledge in web development technologies by continuous education and self development. You are now set to begin your journey, we advise you find an accountability partner and take breaks from learning as well. Finally, don’t just learn, PRACTISE PRACTISE PRACTISE !!!